An EV is an abridged abbreviation for an electric vehicle. In addition, Electric Vehicles are vehicles that are either partially or fully powered on electric power. Over the years, EVs have been gaining prominence in the automotive sector slowly and unremittingly. In other words, they have shown the world that they are at least equitable if not mostly superior in performance to their ICE engine counterparts. Now it’s time to bust everyone’s myth that EVs are more susceptible to damage, ancillary components affect the range of the electric car, etc.
What are Electric Vehicles?
All-electric vehicles have an electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine and use a large traction battery-packed power electric motor. Therefore, plugging into a charging station or wall outlet to charge is a must for an electric vehicle as they work on electricity. The vehicle emits no exhaust from a tailpipe end does not contain the typical liquid fuel components such as a fuel pump, fuel line, or fuel tank. All-electric vehicles use a battery pack to store the electrical energy that powers the motor. EVs are sometimes referred to as battery electric vehicles(BEVs). EV batteries are charged by plugging the vehicle into an electric power source.
Although electric production may contribute to air pollution, the US Environmental Protection Agency categorizes all-EVs as zero-emission vehicles because they produce no direct exhaust or emissions. Both heavy-duty and light-duty EVs are commercially available. Although some costs can be recovered through fuel savings, a federal tax credit, or state incentives, EVs are typically more expensive than similar conventional and hybrid vehicles.
Components of Electric Vehicles
Battery (all-electric auxiliary):
The role of an auxiliary battery in an electric vehicle(EV) is to provide electricity to power vehicle accessories. There are different types of batteries for an electric car – lithium, aluminum ion, solid-state, lithium-sulfur, and metal-air.
The mantle of a charge port in an electric vehicle(EV) is to connect to an external power supply to charge the traction battery pack.
DC/ DC converter:
It is a type of electric power converter in an EV. This device converts higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower voltage DC power needed to run vehicle accessories and recharge the auxiliary battery.
Electric traction motor:
By manoeuvering the power from the traction battery pack, an electric traction motor drives the vehicle’s wheels. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions.
Onboard-charger takes the incoming AC electricity supplied via the charge port and converts it to the power for charging the traction battery. It supervises battery characteristics such as voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge while charging the pack.
Power electronics controller:
The power electronics controller conducts the flow of electrical energy delivered by the traction battery, controlling the speed of the electric traction motor and the torque it produces. The control system of an electric car curb the operation of the vehicle, including the distribution of power.
Thermal system (cooling):
The thermal system perpetuates a proper operating temperature range of the engine, electric motor, power electronics, and other components. Lowering heat generation and resistance within the cells eliminates the necessity of a cooling fan. Moreover, using metal with high heat conduction and dissipation properties in the lithium-ion battery pack casing further banishes the use of a cooling fan.
Traction battery pack:
According to European standards, for power provenance for electric propulsion IEC 60254 – 1 lead-acid traction batteries should be used in applications that include road vehicles, locomotives, industrial forklift trucks, and mechanical handling equipment(MHE). Basically, it stores the electricity for use by the electric traction motor.
The transmission transports mechanical power from the electric traction motor to drive the wheels. The electrification of road-going vehicles is gathering momentum like nothing the automotive industry has seen for a while. Which electric vehicle transmission to use is one of the questions automotive designers are scuffling with as they rush to develop new electric cars to encounter the demand.
Regenerative braking :
Regenerative braking metamorphoses the vehicle’s kinetic energy into chemical energy to be stored in the battery and used later in powering the vehicle. Current regenerative brakes do not immobilize a stationary vehicle; physical locking is required.
The drive system transmits the mechanical energy to the traction wheels in generating motion. It makes a transmission system unnecessary in an electrical vehicle.
Most importantly, electric cars are precisely safer than cars with internal combustion engines. They don’t sustain any gasoline. Almost all-electric cars currently on their way to the marketplace use a large agglomeration of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Meanwhile, to battle, the possibility of these batteries going nuclear, Tesla and other electric car makers are installing a gaggle of precautionary devices – fuses and circuit breakers that disconnect the batteries when the collision detectors become clued up that the battery pack is about to sustain damage.
Summary on Electric Vehicles
Today’s EVs generally have a dwarf range (per charge) than comparable conventional vehicles have (per tank of gas). Moreover, the efficiency and driving range of EVs vary substantially based on driving conditions. Above all, the external factors are mainly the driving conditions of the electric vehicle. The driving conditions of vehicles are not very static. Acceleration, deceleration, uniform state, and different states of energy consumption are the fundamentals to register an electric vehicle.
However, extreme outside temperatures reduce range because more energy will be used to heat or cool the cabin. High driving speeds reduced range because of the energy required to overcome increase drag. Compared with gradual acceleration, rapid acceleration reduces range. Moreover, hauling heavy loads were driving up consequential inclines also new reduces range. In conclusion, electric cars offer a multitude of benefits and the technology keeps on improvising slowly but surely.
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